DIGITAL/RESOURCE: Murray County Museum – Vann Slaves Remember

A digital resource from 2003, hosted by the Murray County Museum and compiled by Herman McDaniel, excerpting WPA ex-slave interviews that reference the Vanns, a Cherokee slaveholding family from the 19th century:

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BOOK: Miles on The Dawn of Detroit

Tiya Miles, The Dawn of Detroit: A Chronicle of Slavery and Freedom in the City of the Straits. The New Press, 2017.

via The New Press:

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BOOK: Miles on the African-Indigenous Ties That Bind

Tiya Miles, Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

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BOOK: Martínez-Vergne on Charity and Its Wards in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico

Teresita Martínez-Vergne, Shaping the Discourse on Space: Charity and Its Wards in Nineteenth-Century San Juan, Puerto Rico. University of Texas Press, 1999.

via UT Press:
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BLOGROLL: Walton-Raji on Mapping Slavery in Indian Territory

Angela Walton-Raji on mapping enslaved people in Indian Territory using Freedmen’s Bureau records:
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VIDEO: Fuentes on Rutgers’ Ties to Slavery & Displacement of Native Americans | @DemocracyNow

Marisa Fuentes appeared on Democracy Now to discuss the Rutgers University report on slavery and disenfranchisement:
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BOOK: Krauthamer on Black Slaves and Indian Masters

Black Slaves-Indian Masters

Barbara Krauthamer. Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013.

via UNC Press:

From the late eighteenth century through the end of the Civil War, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians bought, sold, and owned Africans and African Americans as slaves, a fact that persisted after the tribes’ removal from the Deep South to Indian Territory. The tribes formulated racial and gender ideologies that justified this practice and marginalized free black people in the Indian nations well after the Civil War and slavery had ended. Through the end of the nineteenth century, ongoing conflicts among Choctaw, Chickasaw, and U.S. lawmakers left untold numbers of former slaves and their descendants in the two Indian nations without citizenship in either the Indian nations or the United States. In this groundbreaking study, Barbara Krauthamer rewrites the history of southern slavery, emancipation, race, and citizenship to reveal the centrality of Native American slaveholders and the black people they enslaved.

Krauthamer’s examination of slavery and emancipation highlights the ways Indian women’s gender roles changed with the arrival of slavery and changed again after emancipation and reveals complex dynamics of race that shaped the lives of black people and Indians both before and after removal.

ARTICLE: Deusen on Indigenous Slaves in Castile

“Gold Smelting, Panama, 1560s-1570s,” [Image Reference MA3900f102] as shown on, compiled by Jerome Handler and Michael Tuite, and sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and the University of Virginia Library. (Click image for details)


This article considers the construction of indigenous (indio) slave identity within the contexts of the sixteenth-century Atlantic and Mediterranean worlds. Of the more than two thousand indio slaves from Latin America who were forced to migrate to Castile during the sixteenth century, nearly two hundred questioned the legality of their enslaved condition based upon the tenets of the New Laws (1542), which declared indios to be free vassals of the Spanish Crown. This resulted in the initiation of 123 before the tribunals of the House of Trade and the Council of the Indies. Because of the need to identify the imperial (Spanish versus Portuguese) origins of indio litigants, witnesses navigated physiognomic identity markers and other criteria. But identification was a subjective art that depended on the legal culture of the courtroom, the experiences and incentives of deponents, and the presence of other slaves in Castile from Brazil, West and North Africa, South and East Asia, or Granada. Analyzing the complex process of labeling indios in such a globalized context shows not only how notions of indigenous enslaveability evolved over the course of the sixteenth century but how Castilian interpretations of phenotype and identity were varied and complex.