VIDEO: Charity Folks (Making History Trailer)

Making History launches with a profile on Charity Folks:

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Harriet Tubman Twenty Dollar Bill | Video |

Daina Ramey Berry, LaShawn Harris, Tiffany Gill, Jessica Millward, Catherine Clinton, and Deborah Gray White discuss Harriet Tubman on C-Span:

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ARTICLE: Millward on Enslaved Women, Bodies, and Maryland Manumission Law

Advertisement from J.M. Wilson for sale of Maryland and Virginia Negroes. Source: Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture / Photographs and Prints Division (Click Image)

Jessica Millward,. “‘That All Her Increase Shall Be Free’: Enslaved Women’s Bodies and the Maryland 1809 Law of Manumission.” Women’s History Review 21, no. 3 (2012): 363–378.


This article investigates the relationship between manumission laws and enslaved women’s bodies in Maryland, USA. The point of departure is the 1809 ‘Act to Ascertain and Declare the Condition of Such Issue as may hereafter be born of Negro or Mulatto Female Slaves,’ which minimized age requirements for freeing enslaved children. If the status of living or future children was not established at the time the manumission document for the mother was presented in court, then any such children were to remain in bondage. As this article argues, the 1809 law represented what lawmakers, slaveholders, and bondpeople already knew—that freedom, like enslavement, was tied to a bondwoman’s womb. By investigating apprenticeship records, legal statutes, manumission documents, and African American petitions for freedom, this article argues that the deployment of black women’s bodies within the law challenged, extended, and defined definitions of freedom in the decades leading up to the Civil War.

Women of Color and Slavery in the United States

In the summer of 2007, the Journal of Women’s History (19:2) published a roundtable on “The History of Women and Slavery: Considering the Impact of Ar’n’t I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South on the Twentieth Anniversary of Its Publication.”

According to the “Introduction” by Jennifer L. Morgan, the roundtable was originally a series of papers presented in June 2005 at the 13th Berkshire Conference on the History of Women at Scripps College in Claremont, California. The 7 essays consider Deborah Gray White’s landmark work, Ar’n’t I A Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South (originally published in 1985) and the state of scholarship on women of color during the period of slavery, including strides made by enterprising women in the field. The article received the 2007 Letitia Woods Brown Article Prize from the Association of Black Women Historians.


Journal of Women’s History (19:2), Summer 2007

Roundtable: “The History of Women and Slavery: Considering the Impact of Ar’n’t I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South on the Twentieth Anniversary of Its Publication.”

Jennifer Morgan, “Introduction.”

Daina Ramey Berry, “Teaching Ar’n’t I a Woman?”

Stephanie M. H. Camp, “Ar’n’t I a Woman? in the Vanguard of the History of Race and Sex in the United States.”

Leslie M. Harris, “Ar’n’t I a Woman?, Gender, and Slavery Studies.”

Barbara Krauthamer, “Ar’n’t I a Woman? Native Americans, Gender, and Slavery”

Jessica Millward, “More History Than Myth: African American Women’s History Since the Publication of Ar’n’t I a Woman?”

Deborah Gray White, “Afterword: A Response.”

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