Girard, Philippe. “Rebelles with a Cause: Women in the Haitian War of Independence, 1802-04.” Gender & History 21, no. 1 (4, 2009): 60-85. http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.111/j.1468-0424.2009.01535.x.
Abstract: This article studies the role of white, black and mulatto women during the last two years of the Haitian War of Independence, also known as the Haitian Revolution (1802–04). It might be expected that women’s contribution was limited in wartime, but this article concludes otherwise. Desirable women were sought as prizes symbolic of a man’s status in colonial society, or actively used their appeal to obtain political favours. Women of colour contributed to the rebellion in the fields of logistics, espionage and even combat. They also experienced martyrdom when convicted of aiding the rebel army. White women, in turn, were considered such an integral part of the colonial order that the rebels, led by Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines, targeted them, as well as other civilians, during the fighting, then proceeded to exterminate all surviving whites after the rebel victory.
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